Nrf2 is activated by KBs and KD External link. However, further research confirmed that the application of KD is expected to become a new strategy for the treatment of PD. ISBN Toxicol in Vitro. The usefulness of dietary medium-chain triglycerides in body weight control: fact or fancy? Osteoarthritis Cartilage 26 : — Their activation generally increases expression of genes by binding to PPREs within their promoter regions in tandem with a retinoid X receptor.
In the research of Nazarewicz et al. The weight of evidence suggests that induced ketosis reduces levels of oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunction, and inflammation—core features of the above disorders. Baicalein attenuates astroglial activation in the 1-methylphenyl-1,2,3,4-tetrahydropyridine-induced Parkinson’s disease model by downregulating the activations of nuclear factor-kappaB, ERK, and JNK. HY wrote the initial draft of the manuscript. Antioxid Redox Signal 24 : — Nrf2 also upregulates glutathione reductase activity, which provides another avenue for maintaining levels of glutathione Harvey et al. Efficacy of the ketogenic diet for intractable seizure disorders: review of 58 cases. Indeed, it has been found that sleep and sleep deprivation are potent activators of seizures and epileptiform discharges, Shouse et al. A ketogenic diet increases succinic dehydrogenase SDH activity and recovers age-related decrease in numeric density of SDH-positive mitochondria in cerebellar Purkinje cells of late-adult rats.
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The ketogenic diet has great potential clinically, which should be further explored in future studies. It is necessary to specify the roles of components in ketone bodies and their therapeutic targets and related pathways to optimize the strategy and efficacy of ketogenic diet therapy in the future. Ketone bodies KBs are considered as an alternative source of energy supply 1 — 3. Ketone body KB metabolism in humans has been a significant source of fuel of the brain in nutrient deprivation state. Also, these are produced mainly in the liver from FAO-derived acetyl-CoA and transported to the extrahepatic tissues for terminal oxidation. This metabolic mechanism provides an alternative source of energy, especially under fasting state, during which the availability of carbohydrate decreases while the availability of fatty acid increases 4, 5. More specifically, KBs are prone to exert as a significant source of fuel for extrahepatic tissues under a group of physiological conditions, including fasting, starvation, post-exercise, low carbohydrate diets, pregnancy, and neonatal period 6. The ketogenic diet KD is defined as a high-fat, low-carbohydrate diet with appropriate amounts of protein, vitamins, and minerals.